Friday, 16 August 2019

Is eating less red meat really a win for our health and the planet?

The recent report produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on the impacts of global warming has reignited the crusade against eating meat, specifically on this occasion, beef. However, the real messaging of the report appears to have been twisted to suit the needs of headline writers and single-issue campaigners.

From Parliament to dinnertime chat at home, the perceived impact of livestock farming on the environment is the hot topic. The BBC’s interpretation of the report on August 6 fed the fire of anti-meat rhetoric, suggesting the report should lead viewers to question whether meat-free diets could be a long-term solution to climate change.

However, what the report actually stated was: “Balanced diets, featuring plant-based foods, such as those based on coarse grains, legumes, fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, and animal-sourced food produced in resilient, sustainable and low-GHG emission systems, present major opportunities for adaptation and mitigation while generating significant co-benefits in terms of human health.” Doesn’t sound very anti-meat does it? In fact, it backs the common sense notion that responsible livestock farming is part of the solution to climate issues, not the biggest offender.

Even as reporters tried to drive an anti-meat line in the press conference, experts from the panel repeatedly pushed back to say the analysis was not suggesting people turn away from meat – or any other food stuff. This did not stop the media creating their own story with the IPCC report as yet another nail in the coffin of eating meat.

Just a couple of days later, we had the announcement that Goldsmiths University of London has withdrawn beef from their menu on campus in a stance to tackle their own negative impact on the environment. This decision was, we are led to believe, partly steered by the messaging from the IPCC report.   

Along with other industry bodies, AHDB has been supporting farmers to highlight a key fact missed in almost all reporting on emissions and livestock farming: meat and dairy production in the UK is among the most sustainable in the world. We have clear standards on animal welfare, increasingly, farms have right grass management systems in place, we have plenty of rain to make naturally occurring grass growing which grazing animals eat to create protein for humans with very few additional inputs needed. It is a natural cycle that also returns fertility to soils through manure.

AHDB continues to bang the drum and there are many others doing their bit also to balance the debate. AHDB Beef & Lamb board member James Evans was on BBC Midlands Today on August 13, explaining how his grassland helps to revitalise the soil and capture carbon.

There is a lack of understanding about British beef production and the distinction between it and production elsewhere in the world. With British livestock grazing in grass-based systems, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are 2.5 times smaller than the global average. In fact, latest figures for the Committee on Climate change (CCC) acknowledge that emissions from farming amount to 9% of the national total, with 47% of that (so less than 4.5% total) from livestock digestion.

Combatting environmental degradation is without doubt in everyone’s interest. However, the UK is very different to other places on earth and, because of our natural environment and the weather, remains one of the most sustainable places in the world to produce red meat. In fact, without grazing cattle and sheep, as much as 60% of agricultural land in the UK would be taken out of food production, due to the fact it is not suitable for cropping or growing other produce. This would also significantly change the cherished landscapes we have in this country which livestock help to manage efficiently and naturally.

Another recommendation in the IPCC report around livestock is to have improved manure management systems in place and to research into genetic improvement of livestock. At AHDB we are proud to support our farmers with a number of campaigns to combat both of these issues including work to neutralise slurry and Signet Breeding Services which provides genetic evaluations to livestock producers to help them identify sheep and cattle with superior breeding potential.

In order to support the positive messaging and prevent well-intentioned individuals from being misled, AHDB has produced a range of soundbites and infographics which we have been sharing across social media, all of which are accessible for anyone to download directly from our website .

Amidst the slating of the beef industry for its environmental impact, there has also been a re-emergence of claims that red meat causes health problems,  with headlines such as ‘Red meat raises risk of breast cancer in women' and ‘Swap beef burgers for chicken cuts’. However, the evidence continues to support the position that red meat plays a vital role in a healthy, balance diet. To help push that message, we've put together a number of fact-based tools with the Meat Advisory Panel (MAP) which help highlight the positive health benefits of eating red meat There is also a Podcast available to listen to about meat and health here

So, the message when we are speaking to people about these challenges on welfare and red meat, is to look behind the headlines and seek out the facts. Plus, always remember, all foodstuffs have an environmental footprint of some kind and perhaps talk about the water demands of avocado farming or nut production for a change?

It should be all about balance.

Will Jackson

AHDB Beef & Lamb Sector Strategy Director

Monday, 20 May 2019

How to review your business in six easy steps

This month Neil Pickard, AHDB knowledge exchange manager, talks about the new 60 minute farm review and how you can review your business in six easy steps.

It’s hard to put in the time to think about your business performance when you’re busy actually doing the work. And what would be the benefits of doing so anyway, you know what you’re doing.

But do you actually have a clear picture of what your major costs are and how your herd or flock are performing? Will there really be a benefit from buying that extra piece of machinery or are you keeping the right amount of livestock to make maximum use of your grassland?

We’ve been talking to many of you and understand the time pressures, which is why we’ve come up with an easy to use assessment, which should only take about an hour to fill in. And by doing this you will get an immediate overview of the strengths and weaknesses of your business and be able to compare your technical and business performance with other similar farms in England.

What’s the point?

Let’s start with the most obvious – it could help you save money, or put another way, make you more profitable. If you can look at your business and identify that you’re not stocking enough animals for your land, spending too much on machinery or not calving or lambing to achieve the optimum output, then you can start to make small changes to your business.

We’ve tried to make this as easy and quick as possible. You can print the form and write down your figures. We’ve done all the calculation guides for you and will signpost you to any extra information you need along the way. And there’s an easy to identify green, amber and red format for you to follow, with possible solutions if you fall in the amber or red categories.

How do I get started?

The form is on our website. Just print it off and get started. Each section is broken down, so if you only have 10 minutes to spare at a time – break it down into manageable chunks. Our first two sections only take five minutes each, so you could do one while waiting for the kettle to boil and the other while drinking your coffee!

And when you’re finished with your own business assessment, you can see how you compare to other similar farms by accessing farm business survey results.

What happens next?

The next steps are really up to you. There may be easy changes you can make and our Better Return Programme manuals should be able to help you with many of those.

And if you’ve got the appetite to delve deeper, then our Farmbench programme would be the ideal next step. Where you will be able to calculate your actual cost of production for each kilogram of beef and lamb sold. It will also compare the profitability of each of your enterprises which may help you to decide which ones to expand or which to terminate.

Monday, 1 April 2019

Udderly troublesome: Mastitis in sheep

Kate Bamford is researching the role of chronic mastitis in sheep at the University of Warwick.
Her PhD, funded by AHDB Beef & Lamb, will complete in Autumn 2020. Here she writes a guest blog about how you can prevent and treat mastitis in your flock.

The sun is shining, the daffodils are out and the lambs are filling up the field. What could be more troublesome than finding a hungry and sad lamb? Mastitis in suckler sheep is often seen in the first two weeks of lactation, and then just before or after weaning. However, it’s possible at any time, so it’s important to be able to spot the signs early and make sure no lambs are left hungry. 

Spotting acute mastitis

Mastitis is defined as ‘inflammation of the udder’ and is usually caused by a bacterial infection. You can usually spot a ewe with mastitis when they have hungry lambs, are waddling to avoid touching their udder with their back legs, have gone off their food or are away from the rest of the flock.

The udder can feel hot and swollen and might be red in colour. Often acute mastitis will only affect one side of the udder and the ewe will have no milk from that side. If there is some milk, it may look watery, bloody or clotted. When you milk out, make sure it is into a container and not onto the floor, as this may spread the mastitis bacteria to other ewes.

Fast treatment

The earlier you catch acute mastitis the more likely the ewe is to fully recover. Even with fast treatment, there probably won’t be enough good quality milk for her lambs, so you may need to consider fostering or bringing them up as pet lambs.

As mastitis is a bacterial infection, you need to ask your vet which antibiotic they would recommend. It is also a good idea to give a painkiller and anti-inflammatory.

Mastitis is a painful disease and a ewe in pain will take longer to get back on her food. The anti-inflammatory will also begin to act on the swollen udder and help remove toxins caused by the infection.


Once lambing has started there are a few things you can do to reduce mastitis. Maintaining a high standard of hygiene in the lambing barn will keep the levels of bacteria down. Top up with fresh straw and remove wet soiled bedding where possible. When checking milk use a container and wash your hands between different sheep. Keep a bottle of antibacterial gel in your lambing shed if hand washing facilities aren’t available.

Lambs are dependent on their mother’s milk for the first 3 – 6 weeks. Lactating ewes need more energy than pregnant ewes to keep up the high milk yield and quality without compromising their own body condition. Underfed ewes in lactation triples the risk of mastitis.

Older and younger ewes are more likely to get mastitis. 

When a ewe is lambing for the first time, it will also be the first time their udder has developed and so it is softer and more prone to bites and lesions. These increase the risk of mastitis. Make sure these ewes get sufficient feed to enable their development and consider keeping them separate from the rest of the flock. This will enable you to keep an eye on them, avoid bullying, and minimise exposure to mastitis. Leaving a single lamb on ewe lambs will also improve their chances of not developing mastitis.

Other prevention strategies can be used throughout the year before tupping and lambing to keep your flock at a reduced risk of mastitis. These include managing chronic mastitis in your flock and culling ewes with poor udder conformation.

Chronic mastitis

Ewes with chronic mastitis will have a lumpy udder. Sometimes only a small lump can be felt and sometimes there may be a collection of lumps in the udder.

These are abscesses formed by bacteria and they can grow, disappear and reappear in the same sheep.

We know that the presence of these lumps is strongly associated with cases of acute mastitis during lactation. Where there are more lumps in a flock there is also more acute mastitis and so regular inspection and culling of ewes with lumps may help reduce both cases of acute and chronic mastitis. 

For more information read the BRP + document Understanding mastitis in sheep

Friday, 22 February 2019

Dealing with lameness at lambing time

In this month’s blog, qualified vet, Liz Nabb tackles the topic of dealing with lameness at lambing time.

Housing ewes prior to lambing can bring problems when it comes to infectious lameness, especially when they are housed for a long time.

Although frequent bedding-up helps to maintain a dry lying surface, the warm and damp conditions beneath create a perfect environment for bacteria to grow. With the ewes so close to each other, it makes conditions ideal for the rapid spread of scald/footrot and Contagious Ovine Digital Dermatitus (CODD).

So how can we ensure that we do the best for our flock, avoid spreading disease and use this time to your advantage to gain control of infectious lameness?

Stop the spread

Perhaps unsurprisingly, catching ewes for early treatment and segregation of affected ewes is easier to do when they’re housed than when they’re in a field.

One tip that will help is to try to separate lame ewes at the point of housing, with lame ewes being placed in a separate pen until they are fully recovered.

A lame ewe among a large group will likely have a reduced feed intake, especially if concentrates are trough fed. This puts her at risk of twin lamb disease and other problems. Separation also has the added advantage of allowing you to make sure that they are getting their full ration.

It is also important not to turn ewes and their lambs out until they are sound. Healthy feet means less pasture contamination, reducing the risk of spread and leading to fewer problems in both ewes and lambs later in the spring.

Appropriate treatment

Any ewes that you think might be lame should be caught and checked as soon as you notice them. Make sure you take the time to watch the ewes closely as it can be hard to spot early signs of lameness at a high stocking density and on bedding. Sometimes the sign can be as subtle as a change in their behaviour. If you are worried about tipping up a heavily pregnant ewe to check her feet then simply pick each foot up individually instead - do whatever causes the least stress for both of you.

If the ewe has infectious lameness, treat it with an injectable antibiotic and use an antibiotic spray on all four feet. Don’t be tempted to delay treatment because of the pregnancy. The most commonly used antibiotics carry little risk for pregnant ewes and a sheep in pain will be under far more stress than one which is promptly caught and treated.

Don’t be afraid to use injectable antibiotics either. Individual treatments are justified for reasons of both welfare and for the prevention of further cases in the long run. This includes scald, which has been shown to be highly infectious and can shed more bacteria than footrot cases. Whole flock treatments, including antibiotic footbaths, however, cannot be justified in this era of responsible antibiotic use.

Recognising the cause of the lameness is key for treatment selection, in particular for CODD, which can have a disappointing response to the antibiotic oxytetracycline. 

Lameness in lambs

The main cause of lameness in young lambs is joint ill. Sometimes lambs can appear to be weak and unable to stand before joint swelling develops. This leads farmers to mistakenly assume selenium deficiency instead. A correct diagnosis is vital because joint ill needs to be treated quickly for there to be any chance of a full recovery.

Joint ill in young lambs (less than three weeks old) is caused by bacteria which are almost always non-responsive to oxytetracycline. It also requires lengthy treatment to achieve full recovery, often between seven and 10 days. Ask your vet for an anti-inflammatory too, as a lamb in pain is less inclined to suckle.

If your lambs are still lame after a course of antibiotics they should be euthanised as joint damage sadly means they will be in pain for the rest of their life.

Other infectious causes of lameness rarely tend to affect lambs until they are a little older. The odd case of scald can be managed with antibiotic spray. 

Put the foot trimmers away

It is good practice to examine the feet of every ewe as soon as you get the chance. However, don’t be tempted to have a snip – a bit of hoof overgrowth is to be expected following housing on soft bedding and the horn will soon wear away after turnout. Foot trimmers are also an easy way to accidentally spread infection from ewe to ewe and, at worst, can lead to lasting damage.

Finally, if you have a board for recording births, etc., make a note of the ewes which have been treated for lameness. This will make it easier for you to track repeat offenders and to make culling decisions later on.

Liz is currently researching strain specific vaccinations for footrot and is funded by AHDB. Her project will complete in autumn 2021.

For more information see the BRP manual Reducing Lameness for Better Returns and watch the podcast recording ' Lameness, the five point plan and top tips'

Wednesday, 30 January 2019

Ensuring the best start for your lamb crop

Lis King, AHDB Sheep Scientist, gives some top tips around best lambing practices and focuses on
the importance of hygiene at lambing.

Lambing is probably one of your busiest periods so spending some time now to get organised and set yourself a lambing routine will play dividends when you’re tired. Your lambing plan should ensure two things:

  • Lambs must receive the right quantity of quality colostrum quickly (the three Qs of colostrum) 
  • Good hygiene, which becomes more important as lambing progresses due to the build-up of bacteria

If you incorporate these two points into your plan it will reduce the risk of watery mouth, joint ill, navel ill, mastitis and metritis (uterus infections) and other generalised infections, maximise the chance of survival, reduce mortality and make good business sense. It also reduces the need for antibiotic treatment, helping to prevent antibiotic resistance developing on your farm.

Bacteria in the environment can enter lambs through several routes including the mouth, the navel and ear tags to potentially cause disease. While bacteria enter the lamb within the first few hours after birth, infection may not develop immediately. This delay means farmers don’t always associate the two (e.g. joint ill). Ensuring lambs suckle a sufficient quantity of quality colostrum within 24 hours of birth is essential, as it provides the antibodies necessary to protect lambs from disease. Lambs need to consume 50ml/kg of colostrum in the first two hours and 200ml/kg in the first 24 hours, so a 5kg lamb would need to consume 250ml within 2 hours and 1 litre within 24 hours of birth. Colostrum quality can easily be checked using a brix refractometer. There are also a number of simple good hygiene practices you can adopt to help protect ewes and lambs further.

If the flock is lambing indoors, lambing pens should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected prior to bringing the ewes into lamb. Housing should be well-ventilated but draft free and the floor dry, with plenty of fresh bedding in both group and individual pens. Keep bedding as clean and dry as possible. Clean out individual pens between ewes and lambs if possible, or spread disinfectant or lime before re-bedding. Take special care of popular areas for giving birth (e.g. the back or corner of the housing) and remove any obvious wet bedding and afterbirth. The AHDB bedding materials directory is useful if you are looking for alternatives to straw following the drought last year.

Wear disposable gloves for lambing assists and have facilities handy to enable washing of hands regularly, remember to keep all lambing and equipment clean and to disinfect between each use. Lambing can be a stressful time so it is important that equipment is ready beforehand.

Treat lambs’ navels within 15 minutes of birth with strong iodine solution (10 percent) and preferably alcohol based. The alcohol helps to dry the navel. The treatment needs to be repeated at least once, at around two to four hours later, ensure the entire navel is covered. Either a spray or dip can be used, but if using dips, change the solution and clean the cup regularly to prevent spreading disease. The repeat application can be built into a routine and applied when you go back to check the lamb has received adequate colostrum. 

Finally, place ear tags in surgical spirit prior to application, this will disinfect the tags and help reduce the chance of introducing infection.

I hope my top tips will give your lamb crop the best start, reduce the number of animals you need to treat with antibiotics and most importantly increase your flock performance. Happy lambing!

For more information refer to the Better Returns Programme manuals including Reducing lamb losses for Better Returns, Using medicines correctly for Better Returns and Targeting lamb management for Better Returns

You can also watch our AHDB webinars, on our YouTube channel; Reducing lamb losses and Lambing success - responsible use of antibiotics at lambing time